Ekrem Buğra Ekinci, 1987’de Ankara Hukuk Fakültesi’ni bitirdi. Avukatlık stajı yaptı.

Ankara’da başladığı kariyerini İstanbul’da sürdürdü.
Doktorasını 1996’da İstanbul Hukuk Fakültesi’nde tamamladı.

Türkiye ve Daily Sabah gazetelerinde yazmaktadır.
Devam
 
PRINTING PRESS AS A TURKISH INVENTION

17 Mart 2017 Cuma

Although it is commonly believed that the printing press is Johann Gutenberg's invention, Buddhists and Muslims had been using the magic of the printing press for centuries. The Ottoman's late transition to the printing press, on the other hand, is directly related to the magnificent work of calligraphists and aesthetic pleasure

In 1620, Francis Bacon said that the world's most important inventions are the printing press, gunpowder and the compass. While these things originated in Asia, they were brought to Europe via Muslim Arabs and Turks. The printing press contributed largely to the spreading influence of the Renaissance as paper helped bring information, inventions and ideas from Europe, contributing to the development of science. This also led to the rise of nationalism while improving the European economy; in short, the printing press completely changed the characteristics of the Western world.

Students in Damascus print and bind books under the supervision of their teacher in the 20th century Ottoman Empire

Real inventors of printing press

In the sixth century B.C., woodblock printing was used in China and Korea. Buddhist monks dominated the printing press during this period, while the Uighurs (a Turkic ethnic group from Eastern Central Asia) developed the very first printing press with adjustable letters, pressing double colors of black and red on leather, Chinese paper and silk In the 14th century, this type of printing press was used by the Mamelukes in Egypt.

The printing press was introduced to Europe as a result of the Muslim invasion from the south and the Turkish invasions from the north. The first books were printed in Europe in 1423, which were religious texts for common people and Latin grammar books. They were all printed on block printing press using wood embossing dyes. The metal printing press with adjustable letters was first used by German Johann Gutenberg in 1448 and Gutenberg was mistakenly known as the inventor of the printing press.

The Ottomans had been familiar with the printing press from very early times. In the 15th century, printing houses in Istanbul and other Ottoman cities were called "basmahane." However, they were run by the Greek, Armenian and Jewish Ottomans, who printed books in their own languages.

The first book featuring the Arabic alphabet was printed in the Italian town of Fono in 1514. Also, books in both Arabic and Persian were printed in Venezia, Rome and Vienna. These books were useful for merchants and missionaries. Ottoman Sultan Murad III allowed the free sale of Arabic, Persian and Turkish books that were printed in Europe across the Ottoman Empire in 1587.

Aesthetic pleasure

Turkish people used to prefer handwriting rather than printed books as printed books didn't have the same artistic and elegant value that handwritten books had. Being keen on aesthetics, the Ottoman intellectuals used to enjoy books that had elaborate handwriting, shining ink, ornamented sides and elaborate covers because reading a book was not only a necessity but it also offered an enjoyable time. Also, there were many calligraphists who used to copy books in large amounts and very quickly. The widespread interest in handwritten books also created employment for these calligraphists. In fact, people who were keen on reading books belonged to a certain social class and the same rule applies even today.

The first printing press that belonged to the Muslims was opened by İbrahim Müteferrika in 1727 during the Tulip Period, when the Ottoman industrial revolution began. The printing press in Istanbul opened only 34 years after the first printing press was established in New York. Said Efendi, who was the son of Yirmisekiz Çelebi Mehmed Efendi (an Ottoman statesman), accompanied his father during his visit to Paris as his stenographer and admired the printing house in Paris and assigned İbrahim Müteferrika to build a similar one.

İbrahim Müteferrika submitted a report to the grand vizier, in which he said that many Islamic books were lost during the destruction that Andalusia and other Muslim lands suffered from, and added that there were not enough calligraphists to copy large and comprehensive books faultlessly, thus emphasizing the necessity and benefits of the printing press. He said knowledge could spread farthest via the printing press, which produced a more readable structure. As the books wouldn't be damaged by water, it was a profitable job and the prices of books would decrease. He also added that books printed by Europeans in the Arabic alphabet had lots of mistakes and the printing press would boost the Ottoman Empire's reputation.

The then-Sheikh al-Islam (the highest-ranking religious official in the Ottoman Empire) gave a fatwa, saying that the printing press was not contrary to religion; instead, it was a useful invention. However, there was a false claim made during the Republic period that said, "While Europe already invented the printing press and started to print books, the religious authorities in our country prevented us from using it, saying it was against the religion, and caused a slowdown in our progress."

The death of the pencil

The Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III issued a royal decree in 1727 that allowed the publication of non-religious books as well. Said Efendi and İbrahim Müteferrika founded a labor-capital company and opened the first printinghouse in İbrahim Müteferrika's mansion in the Üsküdar district of Istanbul. They also had four expert proofreaders. First printed book in December 1727, a two-volume Arabic-Turkish dictionary called "Vankulu opened with its first volume of 666 pages while the second volume had 756 pages. In total, 1,000 copies were printed in size 18 typing size."

During this period, calligraphists, who used to earn a living by writing and copying books, protested Babıali (Sublime Port), putting their pencils in coffins. Following this protest, the writing of religious books was assigned to calligraphists again. Baron de Tott, who was in Istanbul, said the printing house was closed because of lack of interest and the orientalists slammed the Ottomans for it. An Italian ex-Jesuit Giambattista Toderini, staying in Constantinople between 1781 and 1786, criticized Baron de Tott's false accusations raised against the printing house. In fact, the printing press reopened at the earliest opportunity although its services were disturbed for a while during the Russo-Ottoman War.

When Said Efendi became grand vizier a few years later, he handed over the printing house to his partner. After İbrahim Müteferrika died in 1745, Qadi İbrahim Efendi, who was a religious functionary and also his aide and son-in-law, ran the printing house. Following the Russo- Ottoman War, historians Raşid and Vasıf Efendi bought the printing house In 1783 when they heard the French embassy wanted to buy it at a very high price and didn't want to hand it over to foreigners, even printing French books.

The Müteferrika's Printing House, which was becoming older and older and whose letters became dysfunctional, made a pause for its activities in 1798.Then, the Ottoman Empire founded three printing houses; "Mühendishane,""Üsküdar" (Dârüttıbaa) and "Takvimhane-i Âmire," which were then became printing houses run by the state. Sultan Mahmud II allowed the printing of religious books as well during his reign.


 Önceki Yazılar
13.07.2017 - Echoes of a coup attempt

07.07.2017 - Tsarist Russians in Istanbul

30.06.2017 - Turkic peoples' road to Islam

25.06.2017 - THE GOOD, OLD HOLIDAYS

16.06.2017 - QATAR'S JOURNEY FROM PAST TO PRESENT

09.06.2017 - THE WORDS OF HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD FROM ORAL TRADITION TO WRITTEN FORM

02.06.2017 - HISTORY OF THE COMPILATION OF QURAN

26.05.2017 - POLITICAL OPPOSITION IN THE OTTOMAN SOCIETY

19.05.2017 - MAY 19: START OF THE ANKARA MOVEMENT

12.05.2017 - BEING A TRADESMAN NOT AN EASY JOB IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

05.05.2017 - SPRING IS FINALLY HERE: HIDIRELLEZ

28.04.2017 - SABBATAISM AND DOENMEHS IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

21.04.2017 - OTTOMAN HUMANITARIAN AID TO THE IRISH GRIPPED BY FAMINE

14.04.2017 - GREAT COLONIAL EMPIRE ESTABLISHED BY A SMALL COUNTRY

07.04.2017 - CALLIGRAPHY AS INCORPOREAL PROTECTOR OF OTTOMAN HOUSES

24.03.2017 - MODERN INSURANCE SYSTEM HAS ITS ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL ANATOLIA

10.03.2017 - THE PALESTINE ISSUE THAT COST SULTAN ABDULHAMID II THE OTTOMAN THRONE

03.03.2017 - THE RISE AND FALL OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE IN HISTORY

24.02.2017 - THE MEMORIES OF ARMENIAN OLYMPIANS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

17.02.2017 - RUMELIAN TURKS: OTTOMAN MIGRANTS FROM BALKANS TO ANATOLIA

10.02.2017 - IN THE PURSUIT OF ROYAL OTTOMAN FAMILY'S TANGLED INHERITANCE

03.02.2017 - MUHAMMED ALI PASHA'S CAIRO AND EGYPT UNDER OTTOMAN RULE

27.01.2017 - JOURNEY OF TOBACCO FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO OTTOMAN EMPIRE

20.01.2017 - CYPRUS DISPUTE: AN ISLAND AT A CROSSROADS

18.01.2017 - Graves of Ottoman princes, sons of Sultan Abdulhamid II in ruins in France’s Bobigny cemetery

13.01.2017 - A FAREWELL TO LAST HEIR OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE PRINCE OSMAN BAYEZID

10.01.2017 - New heir to the former Ottoman throne witnesses horrors of Syrian civil war in Damascus

06.01.2017 - OTTOMAN-ERA CLOCK TOWERS TELLING TIME FROM BALKANS TO MIDDLE EAST

23.12.2016 - ALEPPO: AN ANCIENT CITY RUINED IN MODERN-ERA DESTRUCTION

16.12.2016 - THE HISTORY OF ROWING ALONG THE BOSPORUS IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

10.12.2016 - TEA: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT A TURKISH OBSESSION

02.12.2016 - THE EVOLUTION OF OTTOMAN-ERA SECRET SERVICES

25.11.2016 - HISTORIC FOUNTAINS AND WATER CULTURE IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

11.11.2016 - MUMMIES OF ANATOLIA STILL A MATTER OF INTEREST

04.11.2016 - AGE OF FIRE: THE DISASTER THAT MENACE OTTOMAN CITIES

28.10.2016 - HEJAZ RAILWAY: A HISTORIC LINE TO ISLAM'S HOLIEST CITIES

21.10.2016 - BIRDHOUSES: MINIATURE MANSIONS OF ISTANBUL

14.10.2016 - SPORTS CULTURE IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

07.10.2016 - TURQUERIE: EVOLUTION OF TURKISH THEME IN EUROPEAN ART, STYLE

30.09.2016 - THE BALYAN FAMILY: ARMENIAN MASTERS BEHIND OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE

23.09.2016 - WORLD'S FIRST HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

16.09.2016 - THE KULELI INCIDENT: AN OTTOMAN COUP ATTEMPT

09.09.2016 - THE SOCIAL DIVIDE BEHIND THE SYRIAN WAR

02.09.2016 - SYRİA: FROM THE DAWN OF CİVİLİZATİON TO CHAOS OF WAR

26.08.2016 - FEB 28: A 'POST-MODERN' COUP OF RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL OPRESSION

19.08.2016 - 1971 MILITARY MEMORANDUM: A POLITICAL DOWNTURN

12.08.2016 - THE 1980 COUP: FEARFUL PERIOD AMID POLITICAL CRACKDOWN

08.08.2016 - THE 1960 COUP: FIRST ATTACK ON TURKISH DEMOCRACY

29.07.2016 - TREATY OF LAUSANNE: TRIUMPH OR LOSS?

22.07.2016 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEYTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEY

15.07.2016 - UNWRAPPING THE HISTORY OF PAPER AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD

08.07.2016 - A TRAVEL DIARY FROM MAGHRIB TO THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

04.07.2016 - RAMADAN BAYRAM: SHARE, REJOICE, WORSHIP

24.06.2016 - PRINCESS EMINE NECIBE: A LOST TALE FROM CAIRO TO ISTANBUL

17.06.2016 - THE KARAMANLIDES: A TURKISH-SPEAKING GREEK ORTHODOX COMMUNITY IN ANATOLIA

10.06.2016 - DATES: THE SACRED FRUIT DURING RAMADAN

03.06.2016 - THE SOCIAL ROLE OF WAQFS DURING THE OTTOMAN ERA

27.05.2016 - SHAMANISM: A PRACTICE OF EARLY TURKIC BELIEFS

20.05.2016 - A MONETARY HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES

16.05.2016 - FEZ: A TIME-HONORED OTTOMAN HAT FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN

06.05.2016 - THE ABDULLAH BROTHERS: PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD

29.04.2016 - THE SIEGE OF KUT: AN UNFORGOTTEN OTTOMAN VICTORY

23.04.2016 - HEALING IN ISLAMIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

18.04.2016 - BEDESTEN: THE OTTOMAN PRECURSOR TO THE SAFETY DEPOSIT BOX

08.04.2016 - THE ART of THE MEDDAH: TRADITIONAL TURKISH STORYTELLING

01.04.2016 - RETHINKING THE IMPERIAL HAREM: WHAT DID LIFE LOOK LIKE FOR OTTOMAN PALACE WOMEN?

25.03.2016 - THE ROMA: A LIFE OF CONSTANT TRAVEL

18.03.2016 - TWO SIDES OF THE GALLIPOLI WAR

11.03.2016 - EUROPE MUST KEEP THE TRADITION OF LIVING TOGETHER

04.03.2016 - THE HOLODOMOR: A MANUFACTURED HUMAN TRAGEDY

26.02.2016 - JAMRAH: THE HERALD of SPRİNG

19.02.2016 - HANDKERCHIEFS: THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF LOVE

12.02.2016 - KARAITE JEWS: THE READERS of HEBREW SCRIPTURES

05.02.2016 - 150 PERSONAE NON GRATAE: THE BLACK LIST OF THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED REPUBLIC

29.01.2016 - WHY THE ISLAMIC WORLD FELL BEHIND IN SCIENCE

22.01.2016 - ADA KALEH: A TURKISH ISLAND IN THE DANUBE RIVER

15.01.2016 - THE MOSUL QUESTION: A CLASH FOR OIL

09.01.2016 - THE GOOD OLD DAYS, WHEN DUMPING SNOW IN THE BOSPORUS WAS AMUSEMENT

01.01.2016 - NEWSPAPERS: AN INTELLECTUAL LEGACY of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

18.12.2015 - THE GALATA BANKERS: FINANCING OTTOMAN STATE

11.12.2015 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF TURKISH-RUSSIAN RELATIONS

04.12.2015 - FRAMING WOMEN'S STATUS THROUGH THE AGES

27.11.2015 - SICILY: AN ETERNAL MEETING POINT BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE

20.11.2015 - TURKISH-ARAB RELATIONS FROM PAST TO TODAY

13.11.2015 - SLAVERY AND ISLAM: A TRANSFORMATIVE MEETING

30.10.2015 - THE BRIEF HISTORY of ELECTIONS in TURKEY

23.10.2015 - ASHURA: THE TRADITIONAL DESSERT EMBRACING PEOPLE FROM EVERY RELIGION

16.10.2015 - TURKISH CHEESES OFFER A VARIETY OF TASTES

09.10.2015 - TRANSFORMATION OF OTTOMAN COFFEEHOUSES TO THE PRESENT

02.10.2015 - THE STORY OF THE STAR AND CRESCENT ON THE ARMS OF TWO EUROPEAN CITIES

25.09.2015 - QURBAN BAYRAM: HOW DO MUSLIMS CELEBRATE A HOLY FEAST?

18.09.2015 - MAHPEYKER KOSEM SULTAN: THE WOMAN WHO OVERSAW 3 GENERATIONS of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

11.09.2015 - LITERACY IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY WAS HIGHER THAN BELIEVED

04.09.2015 - HOSTILITY BETWEEN SELIM I AND ISMAIL I UNDERLIES SECTARIAN DIFFERENCES

28.08.2015 - IMAM SHAMIL: A PIONEER OF THE CAUCUSES'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

22.08.2015 - THE DEVŞIRME SYSTEM: A LADDER TO THE TOP OF THE STATE FOR NON-MUSLIMS

14.08.2015 - THE SPANISH TREASURE LYING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC

06.08.2015 - THE HISTORY of FRATRICIDE in the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

31.07.2015 - THE HISTORICAL CITY GATES OF ISTANBUL

24.07.2015 - THE STORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE'S CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

17.07.2015 - CELEBRATING THE JOYOUS HOLIDAY OF EID AL-FITR

10.07.2015 - SYKES-PICOT: THE WESTERN AGREEMENT THAT SEALED THE MIDDLE EAST'S DOOM

04.07.2015 - A TRAITOR OR A HERO? THE EXECUTION OF SHEIKH SAID

26.06.2015 - HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY

19.06.2015 - RAMADAN FESTIVITIES BRING LIVELY ATMOSPHERE

12.06.2015 - LEGENDS ABOUT TAQI AL-DIN AND THE DEMOLISHED OTTOMAN OBSERVATORY

08.06.2015 - MYTHS AND REALITY ABOUT THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

29.05.2015 - THE CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE: THE HERALDING IN A NEW ERA

23.05.2015 - A CHURCH, A MOSQUE AND FINALLY A MUSEUM: THE NEARLY 1,500-YEAR-OLD STORY OF THE HAGIA SOPHIA

16.05.2015 - THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: A SHELTER FOR ALL KINDS OF REFUGEES

09.05.2015 - THE MOSQUE THAT STANDS ON THE SEA: KILIÇ ALI PASHA MOSQUE

02.05.2015 - THE ROLES OF MAJOR POWERS DURING THE 1915 ARMENIAN INCIDENTS

24.04.2015 - HOW WERE THE 1915 INCIDENTS CONFRONTED BY THE OTTOMANS?

17.04.2015 - MYSTERIOUS SCHOLAR BETWEEN EAST AND WEST: LEGEND OF JAMAL AL-DIN AL-AFGHANI

10.04.2015 - A UNIQUE PERIOD IN TURKISH HISTORY: THE TULIP ERA

03.04.2015 - YEMEN: SEARCHING FOR A SIGN OF PEACE

27.03.2015 - FROM KAFFA TO ISTANBUL: COFFEE'S JOURNEY TO TURKEY

20.03.2015 - JIHAD: A MISUNDERSTOOD ISLAMIC TERM

13.03.2015 - THE BITTER STORY OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY’S EXILE

06.03.2015 - THE HISTORIC JOURNEY OF YOGURT: FROM TURKIC PEOPLES TO THE WORLD

27.02.2015 - THE HISTORICAL ADVENTURE OF THE TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH

20.02.2015 - SHOULD TURKEY SWITCH TO A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM?

13.02.2015 - WAHHABISM: PURE ISLAM OR EXTREMISM?

06.02.2015 - WORLD WAR I: THE HEAVY TOLL OF A DEADLY CONFLİCT

27.01.2015 - LOOKING BACK ON THE LIFE OF A KING

19.01.2015 - THE OTTOMANS’ EXEMPLARY TREATMENT OF STREET ANİMALS

09.01.2015 - HURREM SULTAN: A BELOVED WIFE OR MASTER MANIPULATOR?

03.01.2015 - AN ANCESTRAL LANGUAGE WITH A DIFFERENT ALPHABET

26.12.2014 - DISCOVER THE SEALS OF OTTOMAN SULTANS

02.12.2014 - MEMORIES OF ISTANBUL SHELTERED IN FIREPROOF LIBRARIES

10.09.2014 - SEA BATHING, THE GOOD OLD FASHION WAY

07.06.2014 - SMILE AND SAY 'CHEESE'

13.05.2014 - THE OTTOMAN AQUADUCT LEGACY

25.04.2014 - WHAT HAPPENED TO THE ARMENIANS (MILLET-I SADIKA)?

20.04.2014 - OTTOMAN MILITARY MARCHING BAND

12.04.2014 - MUSLIMS COME FIRST IN THE HISTORY OF CONSTITUTIONS

05.04.2014 - ISTANBUL COMES TO BLOOM WITH TULIPS

28.03.2014 - AN EXOTIC COMMUNITY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: THE LEVANTINES

21.03.2014 - CELEBRATE WITH SWEETS ALL YEAR ROUND

21.03.2014 - MURDERS FOR A FALSE PARADISE: THE HASHSHASHINS

10.03.2014 - NOTABLE LIFE OF MIHRIMAH SULTAN

10.03.2014 - SULTAN SULEIMAN'S INACCURATE PORTRAYAL ON TV SHOW

07.03.2014 - CRIMEA BETWEEN TWO FIRES