Ekrem Buğra Ekinci, 1987’de Ankara Hukuk Fakültesi’ni bitirdi. Avukatlık stajı yaptı.

Ankara’da başladığı kariyerini İstanbul’da sürdürdü.
Doktorasını 1996’da İstanbul Hukuk Fakültesi’nde tamamladı.

Türkiye ve Daily Sabah gazetelerinde yazmaktadır.
Devam
 
CYPRUS DISPUTE: AN ISLAND AT A CROSSROADS

20 Ocak 2017 Cuma

Reunification talks on Cyprus, a divided island in the Mediterranean Sea, are back on the table with Turkey, the U.K. and Greece. Through the ages, this small island has remained at a critical junction with long-term Turkish influence

The Byzantines, Crusaders and Venetians have all established dominions in Cyprus, which was also captured briefly by the Muslim Arabs in the 8th century. The island was conquered by the Ottomans in 1571 after the Venetians began threatening the road to Egypt, and Hejaz, the region of present-day Saudi Arabia, was managed as an ordinary Ottoman state for three centuries. However, the region was put under the governance of the British in return for their support of the Ottoman government during the Treaty of Berlin, signed following the Ottomans' defeat in the Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878).

As the treaty suggested, the rule of the Ottoman sultan was to continue in appearance; Muslim judges and muftis were to be assigned from Istanbul, and the after-expense profit of the island's revenue was to be sent to Istanbul. Furthermore, English, Turkish and Greek became the official languages of the island. When the defendant of a legal case was an Ottoman citizen, Ottoman law was to be practiced; however, in any other cases, British laws applied. The social status of the Greeks and Turks would be determined by the community council.

A man walks near the Selimiye Mosque in the old quarter of the Turkish-administered northern part of Nicosia

Cooperative federation

Britain's desire to establish its dominion over Cyprus caused enduring disputes between the British and the Ottomans. In 1914, the U.K. annexed the island instead of returning its governance back to the Ottomans. In the Treaty of Lausanne signed in 1923, the Ankara government officially recognized the U.K.'s rule over Cyprus. From 1925 [official] until its independence in 1960, Cyprus was given the status of a colony under the British crown.

The Greek community demanded that Cyprus be given to Greece by shouting the slogan "enosis" (union). In 1955, Greek Col. Georgios Grivas founded a secret organization named the National Organization of Cypriot Fighters (EOKA). At the same time, the Turkish community demanded the island be divided or given to the Republic of Turkey.

In 1959 the government led by former Prime Minister Adnan Menderes succeeded by possessing a more influential voice on the island, and Turkey gave up all its rights in the Treaty of Lausanne. As a result of the negotiations with the U.K. and Greece, the Republic of Cyprus became a country based on a cooperative federation idea, similar to how Lebanon and Belgium were established. The president would be Greek while his/her vice president was to be of Turkish descent.

The municipal affairs as well as the number of soldiers and police forces were determined according to the general population, which was 70 percent Greek and 30 percent Turkish. Since many Turks left the island after the dominion of the British, the Turkish population was on the decline in Cyprus. The U.K. kept two military bases, and Archbishop Makarios III became the president while Fazıl Küçük, the leader of Turkish community, became the vice president.

Both Turkish and British governments supported the modernist-traditional division of the Turks on the island. In 1942 Küçük, the leader of the Modernists stated, "If the Turkish Cypriots accept the label of Islam, either the motherland will become distant from Cyprus or Cyprus from the motherland," and the modernist began to object to the Islamic law, madrasahs, Arabic alphabet, Arabic azan and the authority of the mufti.

The Mufti of Cyprus was the second man in the protocol after the governor during the colonial period of the island as the leader of the Muslim community. When the office of mufti was abolished, his position was taken over by the Orthodox Pontiff automatically. Thus, the control of the wealthy waqfs on the island passed down to the secular authorities. There is no mufti or a school that provides religious education on the island even today, which weakens the religious life on island enormously.

Division

Upon the pressure of the Greeks, who were not happy about the new political environment, Makarios proposed a change in the Constitution in 1963. When the Turkish community rejected this proposition, the Greeks began to terrorize the island. Makarios announced that they should annul the 1959 London and Zürich Agreements which had led the way to the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus. The new leader of the Turkish Cypriots, lawyer Rauf Denktaş, encouraged Ankara to step in; however, the then-U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson warned the Turkish government to stay out of the matter. Although the diplomatic contacts of Ankara and the flights of the Turkish jets over the island helped settle the incidents, the opposition against Makarios increased among the Greeks.

The putschist colonels who came to power in Greece in 1967 attempted to annex Cyprus by inciting the heroic deeds of the Greek community in order to mask their domestic problems. To achieve their goal, Grivas traveled to the island in secret and staged a coup, and Makarios fled to London. Former EOKA member Nikos Sampson became the president of Cyprus. In all appearances, the coup benefited the U.S. and Israel and was to the detriment of Turkey and Russia. Meanwhile, the Greeks began to orchestrate provocative demonstrations against the Turks. According to the London and Zürich Agreements, Turkey was one of the three guarantor countries along with the U.K. and Greece. Following silence from London, Turkey exercised its right as a guarantor and landed its troops on the island on July 15, 1974, only five days after the military coup.

In fact, Russia provoked the leftist government in Ankara, which believed in the strategic importance of the island for Turkey, enough to land troops. However, the Turkish soldiers did not withdraw from the island once order was secured. Cyprus was divided into two sections, just as Denktaş and his team had hoped. The two nations on the island had to be relocated. Upon this, the U.S. imposed an embargo on Ankara. The Turkish economy was crumbling. The anti-U.S. Republican People's Party (CHP) along with the National Salvation Party (MSP) coalition fell.

In time, Washington began to support Turkey's presence in Cyprus as its strategic profit from the island, which was sometimes threatened by the British and Greek governments. This move was also to the advantage of Israel, which is located right across Cyprus. Makarios's intimacy with Russia and Russia's plans to settle down in the Mediterranean, right across Israel was not good for the U.S. or Israel. Nevertheless, even Russia began to see the use of Turkey's presence on the island. Hence, the Cyprus dispute was born.

A small, controlled state, supported by Turkey and recognized by no one, was founded in the north of the island. For the Turkish community on the island a desperate isolated life followed, and their domestic income dropped way below their Greek neighbors. Turkey's sole investment on the island was the casinos. Although the Greeks have not interfered with the property rights of the Turks on their side of the island, holding onto their claim of the continuity of the legal stage, the properties belonging to the Greeks on the northern side of the island were taken under the possession of the new political actors. Turkey has had to pay sizeable amounts of money to the Greeks because of this property-right problem, which Denktaş could not even bear to discuss. In short, this matter brought happiness to no one except for a small minority who were fed up with the Cyprus dispute.

 


 Önceki Yazılar
21.07.2017 - Ottoman mark on Istanbul

13.07.2017 - Echoes of a coup attempt

07.07.2017 - Tsarist Russians in Istanbul

30.06.2017 - Turkic peoples' road to Islam

25.06.2017 - THE GOOD, OLD HOLIDAYS

16.06.2017 - QATAR'S JOURNEY FROM PAST TO PRESENT

09.06.2017 - THE WORDS OF HOLY PROPHET MUHAMMAD FROM ORAL TRADITION TO WRITTEN FORM

02.06.2017 - HISTORY OF THE COMPILATION OF QURAN

26.05.2017 - POLITICAL OPPOSITION IN THE OTTOMAN SOCIETY

19.05.2017 - MAY 19: START OF THE ANKARA MOVEMENT

12.05.2017 - BEING A TRADESMAN NOT AN EASY JOB IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

05.05.2017 - SPRING IS FINALLY HERE: HIDIRELLEZ

28.04.2017 - SABBATAISM AND DOENMEHS IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

21.04.2017 - OTTOMAN HUMANITARIAN AID TO THE IRISH GRIPPED BY FAMINE

14.04.2017 - GREAT COLONIAL EMPIRE ESTABLISHED BY A SMALL COUNTRY

07.04.2017 - CALLIGRAPHY AS INCORPOREAL PROTECTOR OF OTTOMAN HOUSES

24.03.2017 - MODERN INSURANCE SYSTEM HAS ITS ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL ANATOLIA

17.03.2017 - PRINTING PRESS AS A TURKISH INVENTION

10.03.2017 - THE PALESTINE ISSUE THAT COST SULTAN ABDULHAMID II THE OTTOMAN THRONE

03.03.2017 - THE RISE AND FALL OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE IN HISTORY

24.02.2017 - THE MEMORIES OF ARMENIAN OLYMPIANS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

17.02.2017 - RUMELIAN TURKS: OTTOMAN MIGRANTS FROM BALKANS TO ANATOLIA

10.02.2017 - IN THE PURSUIT OF ROYAL OTTOMAN FAMILY'S TANGLED INHERITANCE

03.02.2017 - MUHAMMED ALI PASHA'S CAIRO AND EGYPT UNDER OTTOMAN RULE

27.01.2017 - JOURNEY OF TOBACCO FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO OTTOMAN EMPIRE

18.01.2017 - Graves of Ottoman princes, sons of Sultan Abdulhamid II in ruins in France’s Bobigny cemetery

13.01.2017 - A FAREWELL TO LAST HEIR OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE PRINCE OSMAN BAYEZID

10.01.2017 - New heir to the former Ottoman throne witnesses horrors of Syrian civil war in Damascus

06.01.2017 - OTTOMAN-ERA CLOCK TOWERS TELLING TIME FROM BALKANS TO MIDDLE EAST

23.12.2016 - ALEPPO: AN ANCIENT CITY RUINED IN MODERN-ERA DESTRUCTION

16.12.2016 - THE HISTORY OF ROWING ALONG THE BOSPORUS IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

10.12.2016 - TEA: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT A TURKISH OBSESSION

02.12.2016 - THE EVOLUTION OF OTTOMAN-ERA SECRET SERVICES

25.11.2016 - HISTORIC FOUNTAINS AND WATER CULTURE IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

11.11.2016 - MUMMIES OF ANATOLIA STILL A MATTER OF INTEREST

04.11.2016 - AGE OF FIRE: THE DISASTER THAT MENACE OTTOMAN CITIES

28.10.2016 - HEJAZ RAILWAY: A HISTORIC LINE TO ISLAM'S HOLIEST CITIES

21.10.2016 - BIRDHOUSES: MINIATURE MANSIONS OF ISTANBUL

14.10.2016 - SPORTS CULTURE IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

07.10.2016 - TURQUERIE: EVOLUTION OF TURKISH THEME IN EUROPEAN ART, STYLE

30.09.2016 - THE BALYAN FAMILY: ARMENIAN MASTERS BEHIND OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE

23.09.2016 - WORLD'S FIRST HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

16.09.2016 - THE KULELI INCIDENT: AN OTTOMAN COUP ATTEMPT

09.09.2016 - THE SOCIAL DIVIDE BEHIND THE SYRIAN WAR

02.09.2016 - SYRİA: FROM THE DAWN OF CİVİLİZATİON TO CHAOS OF WAR

26.08.2016 - FEB 28: A 'POST-MODERN' COUP OF RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL OPRESSION

19.08.2016 - 1971 MILITARY MEMORANDUM: A POLITICAL DOWNTURN

12.08.2016 - THE 1980 COUP: FEARFUL PERIOD AMID POLITICAL CRACKDOWN

08.08.2016 - THE 1960 COUP: FIRST ATTACK ON TURKISH DEMOCRACY

29.07.2016 - TREATY OF LAUSANNE: TRIUMPH OR LOSS?

22.07.2016 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEYTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEY

15.07.2016 - UNWRAPPING THE HISTORY OF PAPER AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD

08.07.2016 - A TRAVEL DIARY FROM MAGHRIB TO THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

04.07.2016 - RAMADAN BAYRAM: SHARE, REJOICE, WORSHIP

24.06.2016 - PRINCESS EMINE NECIBE: A LOST TALE FROM CAIRO TO ISTANBUL

17.06.2016 - THE KARAMANLIDES: A TURKISH-SPEAKING GREEK ORTHODOX COMMUNITY IN ANATOLIA

10.06.2016 - DATES: THE SACRED FRUIT DURING RAMADAN

03.06.2016 - THE SOCIAL ROLE OF WAQFS DURING THE OTTOMAN ERA

27.05.2016 - SHAMANISM: A PRACTICE OF EARLY TURKIC BELIEFS

20.05.2016 - A MONETARY HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES

16.05.2016 - FEZ: A TIME-HONORED OTTOMAN HAT FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN

06.05.2016 - THE ABDULLAH BROTHERS: PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD

29.04.2016 - THE SIEGE OF KUT: AN UNFORGOTTEN OTTOMAN VICTORY

23.04.2016 - HEALING IN ISLAMIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

18.04.2016 - BEDESTEN: THE OTTOMAN PRECURSOR TO THE SAFETY DEPOSIT BOX

08.04.2016 - THE ART of THE MEDDAH: TRADITIONAL TURKISH STORYTELLING

01.04.2016 - RETHINKING THE IMPERIAL HAREM: WHAT DID LIFE LOOK LIKE FOR OTTOMAN PALACE WOMEN?

25.03.2016 - THE ROMA: A LIFE OF CONSTANT TRAVEL

18.03.2016 - TWO SIDES OF THE GALLIPOLI WAR

11.03.2016 - EUROPE MUST KEEP THE TRADITION OF LIVING TOGETHER

04.03.2016 - THE HOLODOMOR: A MANUFACTURED HUMAN TRAGEDY

26.02.2016 - JAMRAH: THE HERALD of SPRİNG

19.02.2016 - HANDKERCHIEFS: THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF LOVE

12.02.2016 - KARAITE JEWS: THE READERS of HEBREW SCRIPTURES

05.02.2016 - 150 PERSONAE NON GRATAE: THE BLACK LIST OF THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED REPUBLIC

29.01.2016 - WHY THE ISLAMIC WORLD FELL BEHIND IN SCIENCE

22.01.2016 - ADA KALEH: A TURKISH ISLAND IN THE DANUBE RIVER

15.01.2016 - THE MOSUL QUESTION: A CLASH FOR OIL

09.01.2016 - THE GOOD OLD DAYS, WHEN DUMPING SNOW IN THE BOSPORUS WAS AMUSEMENT

01.01.2016 - NEWSPAPERS: AN INTELLECTUAL LEGACY of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

18.12.2015 - THE GALATA BANKERS: FINANCING OTTOMAN STATE

11.12.2015 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF TURKISH-RUSSIAN RELATIONS

04.12.2015 - FRAMING WOMEN'S STATUS THROUGH THE AGES

27.11.2015 - SICILY: AN ETERNAL MEETING POINT BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE

20.11.2015 - TURKISH-ARAB RELATIONS FROM PAST TO TODAY

13.11.2015 - SLAVERY AND ISLAM: A TRANSFORMATIVE MEETING

30.10.2015 - THE BRIEF HISTORY of ELECTIONS in TURKEY

23.10.2015 - ASHURA: THE TRADITIONAL DESSERT EMBRACING PEOPLE FROM EVERY RELIGION

16.10.2015 - TURKISH CHEESES OFFER A VARIETY OF TASTES

09.10.2015 - TRANSFORMATION OF OTTOMAN COFFEEHOUSES TO THE PRESENT

02.10.2015 - THE STORY OF THE STAR AND CRESCENT ON THE ARMS OF TWO EUROPEAN CITIES

25.09.2015 - QURBAN BAYRAM: HOW DO MUSLIMS CELEBRATE A HOLY FEAST?

18.09.2015 - MAHPEYKER KOSEM SULTAN: THE WOMAN WHO OVERSAW 3 GENERATIONS of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

11.09.2015 - LITERACY IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY WAS HIGHER THAN BELIEVED

04.09.2015 - HOSTILITY BETWEEN SELIM I AND ISMAIL I UNDERLIES SECTARIAN DIFFERENCES

28.08.2015 - IMAM SHAMIL: A PIONEER OF THE CAUCUSES'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

22.08.2015 - THE DEVŞIRME SYSTEM: A LADDER TO THE TOP OF THE STATE FOR NON-MUSLIMS

14.08.2015 - THE SPANISH TREASURE LYING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC

06.08.2015 - THE HISTORY of FRATRICIDE in the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

31.07.2015 - THE HISTORICAL CITY GATES OF ISTANBUL

24.07.2015 - THE STORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE'S CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

17.07.2015 - CELEBRATING THE JOYOUS HOLIDAY OF EID AL-FITR

10.07.2015 - SYKES-PICOT: THE WESTERN AGREEMENT THAT SEALED THE MIDDLE EAST'S DOOM

04.07.2015 - A TRAITOR OR A HERO? THE EXECUTION OF SHEIKH SAID

26.06.2015 - HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY

19.06.2015 - RAMADAN FESTIVITIES BRING LIVELY ATMOSPHERE

12.06.2015 - LEGENDS ABOUT TAQI AL-DIN AND THE DEMOLISHED OTTOMAN OBSERVATORY

08.06.2015 - MYTHS AND REALITY ABOUT THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

29.05.2015 - THE CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE: THE HERALDING IN A NEW ERA

23.05.2015 - A CHURCH, A MOSQUE AND FINALLY A MUSEUM: THE NEARLY 1,500-YEAR-OLD STORY OF THE HAGIA SOPHIA

16.05.2015 - THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: A SHELTER FOR ALL KINDS OF REFUGEES

09.05.2015 - THE MOSQUE THAT STANDS ON THE SEA: KILIÇ ALI PASHA MOSQUE

02.05.2015 - THE ROLES OF MAJOR POWERS DURING THE 1915 ARMENIAN INCIDENTS

24.04.2015 - HOW WERE THE 1915 INCIDENTS CONFRONTED BY THE OTTOMANS?

17.04.2015 - MYSTERIOUS SCHOLAR BETWEEN EAST AND WEST: LEGEND OF JAMAL AL-DIN AL-AFGHANI

10.04.2015 - A UNIQUE PERIOD IN TURKISH HISTORY: THE TULIP ERA

03.04.2015 - YEMEN: SEARCHING FOR A SIGN OF PEACE

27.03.2015 - FROM KAFFA TO ISTANBUL: COFFEE'S JOURNEY TO TURKEY

20.03.2015 - JIHAD: A MISUNDERSTOOD ISLAMIC TERM

13.03.2015 - THE BITTER STORY OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY’S EXILE

06.03.2015 - THE HISTORIC JOURNEY OF YOGURT: FROM TURKIC PEOPLES TO THE WORLD

27.02.2015 - THE HISTORICAL ADVENTURE OF THE TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH

20.02.2015 - SHOULD TURKEY SWITCH TO A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM?

13.02.2015 - WAHHABISM: PURE ISLAM OR EXTREMISM?

06.02.2015 - WORLD WAR I: THE HEAVY TOLL OF A DEADLY CONFLİCT

27.01.2015 - LOOKING BACK ON THE LIFE OF A KING

19.01.2015 - THE OTTOMANS’ EXEMPLARY TREATMENT OF STREET ANİMALS

09.01.2015 - HURREM SULTAN: A BELOVED WIFE OR MASTER MANIPULATOR?

03.01.2015 - AN ANCESTRAL LANGUAGE WITH A DIFFERENT ALPHABET

26.12.2014 - DISCOVER THE SEALS OF OTTOMAN SULTANS

02.12.2014 - MEMORIES OF ISTANBUL SHELTERED IN FIREPROOF LIBRARIES

10.09.2014 - SEA BATHING, THE GOOD OLD FASHION WAY

07.06.2014 - SMILE AND SAY 'CHEESE'

13.05.2014 - THE OTTOMAN AQUADUCT LEGACY

25.04.2014 - WHAT HAPPENED TO THE ARMENIANS (MILLET-I SADIKA)?

20.04.2014 - OTTOMAN MILITARY MARCHING BAND

12.04.2014 - MUSLIMS COME FIRST IN THE HISTORY OF CONSTITUTIONS

05.04.2014 - ISTANBUL COMES TO BLOOM WITH TULIPS

28.03.2014 - AN EXOTIC COMMUNITY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: THE LEVANTINES

21.03.2014 - CELEBRATE WITH SWEETS ALL YEAR ROUND

21.03.2014 - MURDERS FOR A FALSE PARADISE: THE HASHSHASHINS

10.03.2014 - NOTABLE LIFE OF MIHRIMAH SULTAN

10.03.2014 - SULTAN SULEIMAN'S INACCURATE PORTRAYAL ON TV SHOW

07.03.2014 - CRIMEA BETWEEN TWO FIRES