Ekrem Buğra Ekinci, 1987’de Ankara Hukuk Fakültesi’ni bitirdi. Avukatlık stajı yaptı.

Ankara’da başladığı kariyerini İstanbul’da sürdürdü.
Doktorasını 1996’da İstanbul Hukuk Fakültesi’nde tamamladı.

Türkiye ve Daily Sabah gazetelerinde yazmaktadır.
Devam
 
THE 1980 COUP: FEARFUL PERIOD AMID POLITICAL CRACKDOWN

12 Ağustos 2016 Cuma

The coup orchestrated by the right-wing junta under Gen. Kenan Evren hit Turkey on Sept. 12, 1980, causing unrest accompanied by a flow of arrests, torture, extrajudicial killing and political and social crackdown

               A tank in a square during the curfew that was declared right after the 1980 coup

Toward the end of the Cold War, the U.S. was trying to reinforce its dominance in the Middle East and Asia while carrying out the European Green Belt initiative against the Soviet Union. The Americans supported the mujahedeen guerrilla fighters in Afghanistan that were fighting against the Soviets and turned a blind eye to religious regimes taking root in Pakistan and Iran. Under this political climate, a military coup took place in Turkey on Sept. 12, 1980.

The political, economic and social atmosphere in Turkey was highly problematic before the coup. The troops that were sent to Cyprus by the anti-American coalition, a government formed by late Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit and Deputy Prime Minister Necmettin Erbakan in 1974 and keeping the troops there even though peace was ensured, caused international reactions targeting Turkey. Many countries imposed heavy economic sanctions on Turkey. Devaluation hit the economy and inflation surpassed 100 percent. Essential supplies such as petroleum, natural gas, oil and cigarettes were scarcely found.

The country was also undergoing serious ideological polarization. The criminals who came out of prison with the amnesty issued in 1974 had been involved in terrorist activities. The left-wing groups that supported Turkey's integration with the Soviet Union and far-right nationalist groups that dedicated themselves to avoid such integrations engaged in armed conflicts with each other through their militia forces. University and high school students, trade unions, government offices and even the streets were divided into fractions. Even though martial law was declared, nothing had changed and tens of people continued to die on the streets every day.

The country was governed by coalition governments. Four political parties, including center right, center left, nationalist and Islamist had a right in the command of the country. Just then, a political crisis came about. A new president, instead of the one whose term of office was over, could not be elected. The election rounds continued for months, but the political parties were not able to reach an agreement. All these led to a coup that took place at 3 a.m. on Sept. 12, 1980. Tanks were positioned at predesignated locations. The soldiers that left their barracks took over all crucial positions and a curfew was declared. Parliament and the government were abolished and politicians were arrested and sent into exile. The junta appointed soldiers, who were either on active duty or retired, to all democratic administrations. Critical institutions such as the police, the Turkish Radio and Television Corporation (TRT) and Turkey's Post Office (PTT) were taken over by the military authorities. Retired Admiral Bülent Ulusu became the military regime prime minister.

The putschists were propagating their will with official statements one after another. Then, Chief of General Staff Gen. Kenan Evren made his famous speech on TV during which he recounted the reasons behind the coup. The military had been considering a coup since 1978 and established a committee to that end. They even sent a warning letter to the government on Dec. 27, 1979. What made the 1980 coup different from the coup on May 27, 1960 was that it came as a result of the chain of command instead of from a small group of officers. According to Evren, the legal excuse behind the coup, whose code name was "Bayrak Harekatı" (Flag Operation), was an article in the military's internal service act considering the military's duty to "protect the Republic."

The people of Turkey, who had grown accustomed to coups, welcomed it with serenity because the conditions were set. However, when the dust settled after the coup, certain questions came to mind. Why could the terror on the streets not be stopped even though politicians and soldiers did everything the soldiers ordered during two years of martial law? And, of course, was a coup necessary?

The country was governed by the National Security Council (MGK), composed of five high-ranking generals. Hundreds of thousands of people were taken into custody and they were trailed. Fifty people were sentenced to death. Evren's famous question: "Should we keep them fed instead of hanging?" entered into Turkish political literature. People were oppressed by means of a fear operation. Many died in prison under suspicious conditions. Hundreds of thousands of people had international travel bans imposed on them and 30,000 people fled abroad as political refugees despite all measures. Around 14,000 people had their citizenships revoked, thousands were dismissed from civil service and films, books, newspapers and magazines were censored and all social community groups were closed. Unlike the coup on May 27, 1960, not only left-wing politicians and the government, but all political parties and politicians were denied action and judicial proceedings included ordinary people. The country's economic loss caused by the coup is estimated to be around $50.4 billion.

The junta, who always put emphasis on Kemalism, introduced the official ideology known as Turkish-Islamic Synthesis, which they considered to be a safety plug to prevent Turkey from shifting to the leftist bloc. This also reveals another difference between the 1980 coup from the 1960 coup, which was more social-democrat in the core.

The MGK established a founding Parliament composed of people they appointed. The last touches of the Constitution, featuring ambiguous statements, were done by this Parliament. Evren set off on a nationwide tour, just like a politician, and tried to persuade the public with threats to vote for the Constitution. He tried to deliver the message that things would change back to the previous times if the Constitution was declined in the referendum. The Constitution was approved with 92 percent of the vote in the referendum, which took place on Nov. 7, 1982. People who feared for their lives in the environment of terror before the coup confirmed the coup. Hence, Evren became president and the Constitution legalized the junta.

Upon struggling with the hardships of governing a state, especially the economy, juntas usually withdraw from the stage and leave politics to civilians. It was the same in this case as well. The junta allowed re-founding of political parties. Technocrat Turgut Özal's Motherland Party (ANAP) was victorious over the party promoted by the junta in the general elections held the following year. Özal worked to establish a liberal democracy and economy in Turkey as much as possible under the shadow of the coup and the soldiers. What makes the Sept. 12 coup different from the coups that occur in the third-world countries is the effort to bring democracy back, even if it is guided by the military, and work things out in the legal platform even if everything the putschists say stand for law. People suspected foreign powers behind the Sept. 12 coup. Fingers were pointed at the U.S. mostly because the former CIA station chief in Turkey, Paul B. Henze, was rumored to have said: "Our boys have done it," to then U.S. President Jimmy Carter while watching the film "Fiddler on the Roof." Rumor has it that then Turkish Air Force Commander Gen. Ali Tahsin Şahinkaya went to the U.S. to get permission or directives for the coup some time before it took place.

The coup was a product of establishing a liberal regime that is also nationalist and conservative in Turkey within the European Green Belt initiative. In the 1970s, when liberalism made its peak, it was commonly known that the U.S. supported coups and brought right-wing governments to realize these reforms. In other words, the 1980 coup was orchestrated to easily bring in the government decisions dated Jan. 24, 1980, aiming to transform the Turkish economy in a neoliberal sense and open it to the world. Interestingly enough, Özal, the mastermind behind these decisions and the Prime Ministry undersecretary as the time, became the prime minister and then the president. He worked in harmony with the U.S. for 10 years.

In 2011, a constitutional provision protecting the 1980 coup plotters was canceled and two generals - Evren and Şahinkaya - were given life sentences in 2014. However, the system that they created with the 1982 Constitution still rules Turkey in political, economic and social aspects.


 Önceki Yazılar
21.04.2017 - OTTOMAN HUMANITARIAN AID TO THE IRISH GRIPPED BY FAMINE

20.04.2017 - مساعدات من السلطان العثماني

14.04.2017 - GREAT COLONIAL EMPIRE ESTABLISHED BY A SMALL COUNTRY

07.04.2017 - CALLIGRAPHY AS INCORPOREAL PROTECTOR OF OTTOMAN HOUSES

24.03.2017 - MODERN INSURANCE SYSTEM HAS ITS ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL ANATOLIA

17.03.2017 - PRINTING PRESS AS A TURKISH INVENTION

10.03.2017 - THE PALESTINE ISSUE THAT COST SULTAN ABDULHAMID II THE OTTOMAN THRONE

03.03.2017 - THE RISE AND FALL OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE IN HISTORY

24.02.2017 - THE MEMORIES OF ARMENIAN OLYMPIANS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

17.02.2017 - RUMELIAN TURKS: OTTOMAN MIGRANTS FROM BALKANS TO ANATOLIA

10.02.2017 - IN THE PURSUIT OF ROYAL OTTOMAN FAMILY'S TANGLED INHERITANCE

03.02.2017 - MUHAMMED ALI PASHA'S CAIRO AND EGYPT UNDER OTTOMAN RULE

27.01.2017 - JOURNEY OF TOBACCO FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO OTTOMAN EMPIRE

20.01.2017 - CYPRUS DISPUTE: AN ISLAND AT A CROSSROADS

18.01.2017 - Graves of Ottoman princes, sons of Sultan Abdulhamid II in ruins in France’s Bobigny cemetery

13.01.2017 - A FAREWELL TO LAST HEIR OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE PRINCE OSMAN BAYEZID

10.01.2017 - New heir to the former Ottoman throne witnesses horrors of Syrian civil war in Damascus

06.01.2017 - OTTOMAN-ERA CLOCK TOWERS TELLING TIME FROM BALKANS TO MIDDLE EAST

23.12.2016 - ALEPPO: AN ANCIENT CITY RUINED IN MODERN-ERA DESTRUCTION

16.12.2016 - THE HISTORY OF ROWING ALONG THE BOSPORUS IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

10.12.2016 - TEA: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT A TURKISH OBSESSION

02.12.2016 - THE EVOLUTION OF OTTOMAN-ERA SECRET SERVICES

25.11.2016 - HISTORIC FOUNTAINS AND WATER CULTURE IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

11.11.2016 - MUMMIES OF ANATOLIA STILL A MATTER OF INTEREST

04.11.2016 - AGE OF FIRE: THE DISASTER THAT MENACE OTTOMAN CITIES

28.10.2016 - HEJAZ RAILWAY: A HISTORIC LINE TO ISLAM'S HOLIEST CITIES

21.10.2016 - BIRDHOUSES: MINIATURE MANSIONS OF ISTANBUL

14.10.2016 - SPORTS CULTURE IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

07.10.2016 - TURQUERIE: EVOLUTION OF TURKISH THEME IN EUROPEAN ART, STYLE

30.09.2016 - THE BALYAN FAMILY: ARMENIAN MASTERS BEHIND OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE

23.09.2016 - WORLD'S FIRST HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

16.09.2016 - THE KULELI INCIDENT: AN OTTOMAN COUP ATTEMPT

09.09.2016 - THE SOCIAL DIVIDE BEHIND THE SYRIAN WAR

02.09.2016 - SYRİA: FROM THE DAWN OF CİVİLİZATİON TO CHAOS OF WAR

26.08.2016 - FEB 28: A 'POST-MODERN' COUP OF RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL OPRESSION

19.08.2016 - 1971 MILITARY MEMORANDUM: A POLITICAL DOWNTURN

08.08.2016 - THE 1960 COUP: FIRST ATTACK ON TURKISH DEMOCRACY

29.07.2016 - TREATY OF LAUSANNE: TRIUMPH OR LOSS?

22.07.2016 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEYTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEY

15.07.2016 - UNWRAPPING THE HISTORY OF PAPER AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD

08.07.2016 - A TRAVEL DIARY FROM MAGHRIB TO THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

04.07.2016 - RAMADAN BAYRAM: SHARE, REJOICE, WORSHIP

24.06.2016 - PRINCESS EMINE NECIBE: A LOST TALE FROM CAIRO TO ISTANBUL

17.06.2016 - THE KARAMANLIDES: A TURKISH-SPEAKING GREEK ORTHODOX COMMUNITY IN ANATOLIA

10.06.2016 - DATES: THE SACRED FRUIT DURING RAMADAN

08.06.2016 - Καραμανλήδες

03.06.2016 - THE SOCIAL ROLE OF WAQFS DURING THE OTTOMAN ERA

27.05.2016 - SHAMANISM: A PRACTICE OF EARLY TURKIC BELIEFS

20.05.2016 - A MONETARY HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES

16.05.2016 - FEZ: A TIME-HONORED OTTOMAN HAT FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN

06.05.2016 - THE ABDULLAH BROTHERS: PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD

29.04.2016 - THE SIEGE OF KUT: AN UNFORGOTTEN OTTOMAN VICTORY

23.04.2016 - HEALING IN ISLAMIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

18.04.2016 - BEDESTEN: THE OTTOMAN PRECURSOR TO THE SAFETY DEPOSIT BOX

08.04.2016 - THE ART of THE MEDDAH: TRADITIONAL TURKISH STORYTELLING

01.04.2016 - RETHINKING THE IMPERIAL HAREM: WHAT DID LIFE LOOK LIKE FOR OTTOMAN PALACE WOMEN?

25.03.2016 - THE ROMA: A LIFE OF CONSTANT TRAVEL

18.03.2016 - TWO SIDES OF THE GALLIPOLI WAR

11.03.2016 - EUROPE MUST KEEP THE TRADITION OF LIVING TOGETHER

04.03.2016 - THE HOLODOMOR: A MANUFACTURED HUMAN TRAGEDY

26.02.2016 - JAMRAH: THE HERALD of SPRİNG

19.02.2016 - HANDKERCHIEFS: THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF LOVE

12.02.2016 - KARAITE JEWS: THE READERS of HEBREW SCRIPTURES

05.02.2016 - 150 PERSONAE NON GRATAE: THE BLACK LIST OF THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED REPUBLIC

29.01.2016 - WHY THE ISLAMIC WORLD FELL BEHIND IN SCIENCE

22.01.2016 - ADA KALEH: A TURKISH ISLAND IN THE DANUBE RIVER

15.01.2016 - THE MOSUL QUESTION: A CLASH FOR OIL

09.01.2016 - THE GOOD OLD DAYS, WHEN DUMPING SNOW IN THE BOSPORUS WAS AMUSEMENT

01.01.2016 - NEWSPAPERS: AN INTELLECTUAL LEGACY of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

18.12.2015 - THE GALATA BANKERS: FINANCING OTTOMAN STATE

11.12.2015 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF TURKISH-RUSSIAN RELATIONS

04.12.2015 - FRAMING WOMEN'S STATUS THROUGH THE AGES

27.11.2015 - SICILY: AN ETERNAL MEETING POINT BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE

20.11.2015 - TURKISH-ARAB RELATIONS FROM PAST TO TODAY

13.11.2015 - SLAVERY AND ISLAM: A TRANSFORMATIVE MEETING

30.10.2015 - THE BRIEF HISTORY of ELECTIONS in TURKEY

23.10.2015 - ASHURA: THE TRADITIONAL DESSERT EMBRACING PEOPLE FROM EVERY RELIGION

22.10.2015 - Ashura: una festa e un dolce che uniscono diverse comunità religiose

16.10.2015 - TURKISH CHEESES OFFER A VARIETY OF TASTES

09.10.2015 - TRANSFORMATION OF OTTOMAN COFFEEHOUSES TO THE PRESENT

02.10.2015 - THE STORY OF THE STAR AND CRESCENT ON THE ARMS OF TWO EUROPEAN CITIES

25.09.2015 - QURBAN BAYRAM: HOW DO MUSLIMS CELEBRATE A HOLY FEAST?

18.09.2015 - MAHPEYKER KOSEM SULTAN: THE WOMAN WHO OVERSAW 3 GENERATIONS of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

11.09.2015 - LITERACY IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY WAS HIGHER THAN BELIEVED

04.09.2015 - HOSTILITY BETWEEN SELIM I AND ISMAIL I UNDERLIES SECTARIAN DIFFERENCES

28.08.2015 - IMAM SHAMIL: A PIONEER OF THE CAUCUSES'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

22.08.2015 - THE DEVŞIRME SYSTEM: A LADDER TO THE TOP OF THE STATE FOR NON-MUSLIMS

14.08.2015 - THE SPANISH TREASURE LYING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC

06.08.2015 - THE HISTORY of FRATRICIDE in the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

31.07.2015 - THE HISTORICAL CITY GATES OF ISTANBUL

24.07.2015 - THE STORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE'S CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

17.07.2015 - CELEBRATING THE JOYOUS HOLIDAY OF EID AL-FITR

10.07.2015 - SYKES-PICOT: THE WESTERN AGREEMENT THAT SEALED THE MIDDLE EAST'S DOOM

04.07.2015 - A TRAITOR OR A HERO? THE EXECUTION OF SHEIKH SAID

26.06.2015 - HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY

19.06.2015 - RAMADAN FESTIVITIES BRING LIVELY ATMOSPHERE

12.06.2015 - LEGENDS ABOUT TAQI AL-DIN AND THE DEMOLISHED OTTOMAN OBSERVATORY

08.06.2015 - MYTHS AND REALITY ABOUT THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

29.05.2015 - THE CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE: THE HERALDING IN A NEW ERA

23.05.2015 - A CHURCH, A MOSQUE AND FINALLY A MUSEUM: THE NEARLY 1,500-YEAR-OLD STORY OF THE HAGIA SOPHIA

16.05.2015 - THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: A SHELTER FOR ALL KINDS OF REFUGEES

09.05.2015 - THE MOSQUE THAT STANDS ON THE SEA: KILIÇ ALI PASHA MOSQUE

02.05.2015 - THE ROLES OF MAJOR POWERS DURING THE 1915 ARMENIAN INCIDENTS

24.04.2015 - HOW WERE THE 1915 INCIDENTS CONFRONTED BY THE OTTOMANS?

17.04.2015 - MYSTERIOUS SCHOLAR BETWEEN EAST AND WEST: LEGEND OF JAMAL AL-DIN AL-AFGHANI

10.04.2015 - A UNIQUE PERIOD IN TURKISH HISTORY: THE TULIP ERA

03.04.2015 - YEMEN: SEARCHING FOR A SIGN OF PEACE

27.03.2015 - FROM KAFFA TO ISTANBUL: COFFEE'S JOURNEY TO TURKEY

20.03.2015 - JIHAD: A MISUNDERSTOOD ISLAMIC TERM

13.03.2015 - THE BITTER STORY OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY’S EXILE

06.03.2015 - THE HISTORIC JOURNEY OF YOGURT: FROM TURKIC PEOPLES TO THE WORLD

27.02.2015 - THE HISTORICAL ADVENTURE OF THE TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH

20.02.2015 - SHOULD TURKEY SWITCH TO A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM?

13.02.2015 - WAHHABISM: PURE ISLAM OR EXTREMISM?

06.02.2015 - WORLD WAR I: THE HEAVY TOLL OF A DEADLY CONFLİCT

27.01.2015 - LOOKING BACK ON THE LIFE OF A KING

19.01.2015 - THE OTTOMANS’ EXEMPLARY TREATMENT OF STREET ANİMALS

09.01.2015 - HURREM SULTAN: A BELOVED WIFE OR MASTER MANIPULATOR?

03.01.2015 - AN ANCESTRAL LANGUAGE WITH A DIFFERENT ALPHABET

26.12.2014 - DISCOVER THE SEALS OF OTTOMAN SULTANS

02.12.2014 - MEMORIES OF ISTANBUL SHELTERED IN FIREPROOF LIBRARIES

10.09.2014 - SEA BATHING, THE GOOD OLD FASHION WAY

07.06.2014 - SMILE AND SAY 'CHEESE'

13.05.2014 - THE OTTOMAN AQUADUCT LEGACY

25.04.2014 - WHAT HAPPENED TO THE ARMENIANS (MILLET-I SADIKA)?

20.04.2014 - OTTOMAN MILITARY MARCHING BAND

12.04.2014 - MUSLIMS COME FIRST IN THE HISTORY OF CONSTITUTIONS

05.04.2014 - ISTANBUL COMES TO BLOOM WITH TULIPS

28.03.2014 - AN EXOTIC COMMUNITY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: THE LEVANTINES

21.03.2014 - CELEBRATE WITH SWEETS ALL YEAR ROUND

21.03.2014 - MURDERS FOR A FALSE PARADISE: THE HASHSHASHINS

10.03.2014 - NOTABLE LIFE OF MIHRIMAH SULTAN

10.03.2014 - SULTAN SULEIMAN'S INACCURATE PORTRAYAL ON TV SHOW

07.03.2014 - CRIMEA BETWEEN TWO FIRES