Ekrem Buğra Ekinci, 1987’de Ankara Hukuk Fakültesi’ni bitirdi. Avukatlık stajı yaptı.

Ankara’da başladığı kariyerini İstanbul’da sürdürdü.
Doktorasını 1996’da İstanbul Hukuk Fakültesi’nde tamamladı.

Türkiye ve Daily Sabah gazetelerinde yazmaktadır.
Devam
 
RAMADAN BAYRAM: SHARE, REJOICE, WORSHIP

04 Temmuz 2016 Pazartesi

From July 5 to July 7, Muslims around the world will celebrate Ramadan Bayram, a three-day holiday marking the end of fasting. Bayram traditions have diversified from the early days of Islam, but for all, it is a time of joy and enjoy festivities

Just as every religion has its religious festivals, Islam has two festivals observed every year. The first one begins right after the holy month of Ramadan, a period in which Muslims fast for an entire month. This festival is called Eid al-Fitr, or Ramazan or Şeker Bayramı in Turkish, and lasts three days. The word "fitr" means breaking fast. The second Islamic festival is Eid al-Adha, known as Kurban Bayramı in Turkish, during which Muslims sacrifice an animal. Kurban Bayramı begins 70 days after Ramazan Bayramı and lasts for four days. The Islamic pilgrimage is also practiced during Kurban Bayramı.

Bayram memories from Prophet Muhammad's time

The people in Medina used to celebrate two festivals during the time of Hegira. The Prophet Muhammad once said: "God changed these two festivals of yours with two other festivals which are more propitious: These festivals are Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha." He also banned celebrating the festivals of other religions.

The days and nights of these holidays are the times when people are rewarded for their good deeds and it is advised that people spend these days with joy. Fasting is prohibited during these holidays. In Arabic, "eid" is derived from the word "Awdeh" which means "to return." This phrase is used because the holidays are celebrated every year in a loop. The Turkish word "bayram" is derived from an ancient Sogdian word "patram" or "pedram," which means "recurrent entertainment."

There is a particular prayer performed after sunrise during both holidays. This prayer is performed with a congregation in large places in cities or towns called "namazgah" (prayer place), which are assigned for general prayer, or in the city's biggest mosque. People who do not normally perform prayers often attend this prayer and bring their children with them. Women prepare breakfast at home while men are at the mosque.

Since it is believed that performing this prayer is equivalent to good deeds and every step that is taken to get to the mosque is equivalent to good merits, people take the long route to the mosque and take the shorter route after the prayer to join their families as soon as possible. On the way, people chant the takbir with one voice: "Allahu akbar Allahu akbar. La ilahe illallahu. Vallahu akbar Allahu akbar ve lillahil hamd" (Allah is the greatest. Allah is the greatest. There is no other divinity but Allah who is the greatest and the one and all praises go to Allah). It is advised to take a shower, wear nice clothes and perfume and carry out hair and beard care on these holidays. Muhammad used to consume something sweet before bayram prayers. This action symbolizes the end of the fasting month and enjoying the day without fasting. Islam considers and even encourages having fun and being cheerful in a religiously proper way. Muslims should reflect on their happiness and joy on Eid al-Fitr days. Hadith scholars Bukhari and Muslim narrated a story that took place when Aisha, one of Muhammad's wives, was a little girl: "On an eid day, people of Habesh came to the mosque's yard and played a game with spears."

During these holidays, people play games, participate in competitions and listen to music in a religiously appropriate way. The people of Medina, like people everywhere, loved entertainment and used to celebrate holidays with joy. The same narration continues: "On an eid day, Abu Bakr went to visit his daughter Aisha and found her listening to two little girls who were playing tambourine and singing. When he reproached them, Muhammad said: 'Let them be Abu Bakr, these are the eid days!'"

On bayram days, people call on friends and both the living and dead are visited, and the poor and needy are looked after. Giving a helping hand to those who are in distress due to illness, poverty or similar problems is a religious obligation on bayram days. Hence, wealthy people should offer money or food to the poor for them to eat fully for a day according to the number of their family members before the prayers on Eid al-Fitr, preventing the poor from starving, at least on this holiday.

Muhammad once saw children playing outside on bayram. One of the children was standing aside and watching the other children playing unhappily. He approached to the child and learned that he was an orphan. The parents of the other children were alive and they had bought their children fine clothes and fed them nice meals. He caressed the child's head and asked: "Do you want me to be your father, my daughter Fatma to be your mother and my grandchildren Hassan and Hussain to be your siblings?" He took the child under his protection and dressed and fed him. He asked Muslims to make children happy, especially on bayram days. Therefore, adults do everything they can to make children have good memories of bayram days.

Bayram days at the Imperial Palace

Holidays were also a means to display the glory of the empire and the Ottoman sultans apart from their religious duties, since authority and glory in monarchies are displayed not only through military accomplishments, but also through ceremonies. So, bayram ceremonies were arranged according to Sultan Mehmed II's Code of Laws.

The interior of the palace was decorated with torches and lanterns, which were hung on all the windows on bayram days. After the sultan observed his morning prayers at the Aghas Mosque within the Topkapı Palace complex, he exchanged holiday wishes with his retinue in the room where holy relics belonging to Muhammad are preserved. After this ceremony, the sultan congratulated the bayram of high officials in the Arz Odası, where sultans officially welcomed guests. In this room, the sultan sat on the throne and officials appeared before him in their uniforms according to their rank and exchanged holiday wishes. A personal official stood and held a part of the velvet cover of the throne, which was ornamented with silver threads. Those who appeared in front of the sultan kissed this velvet cloak and congratulated his bayram. If the person who appeared in front of the sultan was a scholar, the sultan used to stand up out of respect. The mehter, or janissary band, performed as long as the official ceremonies continued and ships anchored at the entrance to the Bosporus fired cannons. The sultan would appear on an adorned horse with his holiday regiment and observe his bayram prayer at a nearby mosque with the company of officials. Holidays were the time when the public could see the sultan much closer. Special officials standing side-by-side while the sultan passed used to shout: "Long live the sultan! Do not be aggrieved, Allah is more gracious than you."

Because the time between the morning prayer and the bayram prayer is short and many things must be done, holiday wishes were postponed after the bayram prayer. After this, the sultan ate breakfast and rested in his room and then saw his family members and harem.

Following official celebrations at the palace, officials expressed their good wishes and visited each other, according to their hierarchy. In the 19th century, Sultan Abdulmecid urged the cancelation of these visits, as they were expensive, and called to observe them only at the principal clerk's house. On the other side, small fireworks were set off and the holiday regiment appeared on the street for the public. Young people studying at the palace academy performed and showed their skills with swords, arrows and rifles. There were also wrestling competitions.

Many foreign travelers mentioned bayram celebrations in their travel accounts describing how magnificent the festivals in the Ottoman Empire were, especially in Istanbul.

 


 Önceki Yazılar
19.05.2017 - MAY 19: START OF THE ANKARA MOVEMENT

12.05.2017 - BEING A TRADESMAN NOT AN EASY JOB IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

05.05.2017 - SPRING IS FINALLY HERE: HIDIRELLEZ

28.04.2017 - SABBATAISM AND DOENMEHS IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

21.04.2017 - OTTOMAN HUMANITARIAN AID TO THE IRISH GRIPPED BY FAMINE

14.04.2017 - GREAT COLONIAL EMPIRE ESTABLISHED BY A SMALL COUNTRY

07.04.2017 - CALLIGRAPHY AS INCORPOREAL PROTECTOR OF OTTOMAN HOUSES

24.03.2017 - MODERN INSURANCE SYSTEM HAS ITS ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL ANATOLIA

17.03.2017 - PRINTING PRESS AS A TURKISH INVENTION

10.03.2017 - THE PALESTINE ISSUE THAT COST SULTAN ABDULHAMID II THE OTTOMAN THRONE

03.03.2017 - THE RISE AND FALL OF THE ISLAMIC CALIPHATE IN HISTORY

24.02.2017 - THE MEMORIES OF ARMENIAN OLYMPIANS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

17.02.2017 - RUMELIAN TURKS: OTTOMAN MIGRANTS FROM BALKANS TO ANATOLIA

10.02.2017 - IN THE PURSUIT OF ROYAL OTTOMAN FAMILY'S TANGLED INHERITANCE

03.02.2017 - MUHAMMED ALI PASHA'S CAIRO AND EGYPT UNDER OTTOMAN RULE

27.01.2017 - JOURNEY OF TOBACCO FROM THE CARIBBEAN TO OTTOMAN EMPIRE

20.01.2017 - CYPRUS DISPUTE: AN ISLAND AT A CROSSROADS

18.01.2017 - Graves of Ottoman princes, sons of Sultan Abdulhamid II in ruins in France’s Bobigny cemetery

13.01.2017 - A FAREWELL TO LAST HEIR OF OTTOMAN EMPIRE PRINCE OSMAN BAYEZID

10.01.2017 - New heir to the former Ottoman throne witnesses horrors of Syrian civil war in Damascus

06.01.2017 - OTTOMAN-ERA CLOCK TOWERS TELLING TIME FROM BALKANS TO MIDDLE EAST

23.12.2016 - ALEPPO: AN ANCIENT CITY RUINED IN MODERN-ERA DESTRUCTION

16.12.2016 - THE HISTORY OF ROWING ALONG THE BOSPORUS IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

10.12.2016 - TEA: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT A TURKISH OBSESSION

02.12.2016 - THE EVOLUTION OF OTTOMAN-ERA SECRET SERVICES

25.11.2016 - HISTORIC FOUNTAINS AND WATER CULTURE IN OTTOMAN ISTANBUL

11.11.2016 - MUMMIES OF ANATOLIA STILL A MATTER OF INTEREST

04.11.2016 - AGE OF FIRE: THE DISASTER THAT MENACE OTTOMAN CITIES

28.10.2016 - HEJAZ RAILWAY: A HISTORIC LINE TO ISLAM'S HOLIEST CITIES

21.10.2016 - BIRDHOUSES: MINIATURE MANSIONS OF ISTANBUL

14.10.2016 - SPORTS CULTURE IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY

07.10.2016 - TURQUERIE: EVOLUTION OF TURKISH THEME IN EUROPEAN ART, STYLE

30.09.2016 - THE BALYAN FAMILY: ARMENIAN MASTERS BEHIND OTTOMAN ARCHITECTURE

23.09.2016 - WORLD'S FIRST HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

16.09.2016 - THE KULELI INCIDENT: AN OTTOMAN COUP ATTEMPT

09.09.2016 - THE SOCIAL DIVIDE BEHIND THE SYRIAN WAR

02.09.2016 - SYRİA: FROM THE DAWN OF CİVİLİZATİON TO CHAOS OF WAR

26.08.2016 - FEB 28: A 'POST-MODERN' COUP OF RELIGIOUS, POLITICAL OPRESSION

19.08.2016 - 1971 MILITARY MEMORANDUM: A POLITICAL DOWNTURN

12.08.2016 - THE 1980 COUP: FEARFUL PERIOD AMID POLITICAL CRACKDOWN

08.08.2016 - THE 1960 COUP: FIRST ATTACK ON TURKISH DEMOCRACY

29.07.2016 - TREATY OF LAUSANNE: TRIUMPH OR LOSS?

22.07.2016 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEYTORY OF COUPS IN TURKEY

15.07.2016 - UNWRAPPING THE HISTORY OF PAPER AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE ISLAMIC WORLD

08.07.2016 - A TRAVEL DIARY FROM MAGHRIB TO THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS

24.06.2016 - PRINCESS EMINE NECIBE: A LOST TALE FROM CAIRO TO ISTANBUL

17.06.2016 - THE KARAMANLIDES: A TURKISH-SPEAKING GREEK ORTHODOX COMMUNITY IN ANATOLIA

10.06.2016 - DATES: THE SACRED FRUIT DURING RAMADAN

03.06.2016 - THE SOCIAL ROLE OF WAQFS DURING THE OTTOMAN ERA

27.05.2016 - SHAMANISM: A PRACTICE OF EARLY TURKIC BELIEFS

20.05.2016 - A MONETARY HISTORY OF ISLAMIC SOCIETIES

16.05.2016 - FEZ: A TIME-HONORED OTTOMAN HAT FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN

06.05.2016 - THE ABDULLAH BROTHERS: PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE LATE OTTOMAN PERIOD

29.04.2016 - THE SIEGE OF KUT: AN UNFORGOTTEN OTTOMAN VICTORY

23.04.2016 - HEALING IN ISLAMIC SCIENCE AND MEDICINE

18.04.2016 - BEDESTEN: THE OTTOMAN PRECURSOR TO THE SAFETY DEPOSIT BOX

08.04.2016 - THE ART of THE MEDDAH: TRADITIONAL TURKISH STORYTELLING

01.04.2016 - RETHINKING THE IMPERIAL HAREM: WHAT DID LIFE LOOK LIKE FOR OTTOMAN PALACE WOMEN?

25.03.2016 - THE ROMA: A LIFE OF CONSTANT TRAVEL

18.03.2016 - TWO SIDES OF THE GALLIPOLI WAR

11.03.2016 - EUROPE MUST KEEP THE TRADITION OF LIVING TOGETHER

04.03.2016 - THE HOLODOMOR: A MANUFACTURED HUMAN TRAGEDY

26.02.2016 - JAMRAH: THE HERALD of SPRİNG

19.02.2016 - HANDKERCHIEFS: THE SECRET LANGUAGE OF LOVE

12.02.2016 - KARAITE JEWS: THE READERS of HEBREW SCRIPTURES

05.02.2016 - 150 PERSONAE NON GRATAE: THE BLACK LIST OF THE NEWLY ESTABLISHED REPUBLIC

29.01.2016 - WHY THE ISLAMIC WORLD FELL BEHIND IN SCIENCE

22.01.2016 - ADA KALEH: A TURKISH ISLAND IN THE DANUBE RIVER

15.01.2016 - THE MOSUL QUESTION: A CLASH FOR OIL

09.01.2016 - THE GOOD OLD DAYS, WHEN DUMPING SNOW IN THE BOSPORUS WAS AMUSEMENT

01.01.2016 - NEWSPAPERS: AN INTELLECTUAL LEGACY of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

18.12.2015 - THE GALATA BANKERS: FINANCING OTTOMAN STATE

11.12.2015 - A BRIEF HISTORY OF TURKISH-RUSSIAN RELATIONS

04.12.2015 - FRAMING WOMEN'S STATUS THROUGH THE AGES

27.11.2015 - SICILY: AN ETERNAL MEETING POINT BETWEEN AFRICA AND EUROPE

20.11.2015 - TURKISH-ARAB RELATIONS FROM PAST TO TODAY

13.11.2015 - SLAVERY AND ISLAM: A TRANSFORMATIVE MEETING

30.10.2015 - THE BRIEF HISTORY of ELECTIONS in TURKEY

23.10.2015 - ASHURA: THE TRADITIONAL DESSERT EMBRACING PEOPLE FROM EVERY RELIGION

16.10.2015 - TURKISH CHEESES OFFER A VARIETY OF TASTES

09.10.2015 - TRANSFORMATION OF OTTOMAN COFFEEHOUSES TO THE PRESENT

02.10.2015 - THE STORY OF THE STAR AND CRESCENT ON THE ARMS OF TWO EUROPEAN CITIES

25.09.2015 - QURBAN BAYRAM: HOW DO MUSLIMS CELEBRATE A HOLY FEAST?

18.09.2015 - MAHPEYKER KOSEM SULTAN: THE WOMAN WHO OVERSAW 3 GENERATIONS of the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

11.09.2015 - LITERACY IN OTTOMAN SOCIETY WAS HIGHER THAN BELIEVED

04.09.2015 - HOSTILITY BETWEEN SELIM I AND ISMAIL I UNDERLIES SECTARIAN DIFFERENCES

28.08.2015 - IMAM SHAMIL: A PIONEER OF THE CAUCUSES'S STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM

22.08.2015 - THE DEVŞIRME SYSTEM: A LADDER TO THE TOP OF THE STATE FOR NON-MUSLIMS

14.08.2015 - THE SPANISH TREASURE LYING AT THE BOTTOM OF THE ATLANTIC

06.08.2015 - THE HISTORY of FRATRICIDE in the OTTOMAN EMPIRE

31.07.2015 - THE HISTORICAL CITY GATES OF ISTANBUL

24.07.2015 - THE STORY OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE'S CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY

17.07.2015 - CELEBRATING THE JOYOUS HOLIDAY OF EID AL-FITR

10.07.2015 - SYKES-PICOT: THE WESTERN AGREEMENT THAT SEALED THE MIDDLE EAST'S DOOM

04.07.2015 - A TRAITOR OR A HERO? THE EXECUTION OF SHEIKH SAID

26.06.2015 - HATS: A POLITICAL SYMBOL OF TURKISH HISTORY

19.06.2015 - RAMADAN FESTIVITIES BRING LIVELY ATMOSPHERE

12.06.2015 - LEGENDS ABOUT TAQI AL-DIN AND THE DEMOLISHED OTTOMAN OBSERVATORY

08.06.2015 - MYTHS AND REALITY ABOUT THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

29.05.2015 - THE CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE: THE HERALDING IN A NEW ERA

23.05.2015 - A CHURCH, A MOSQUE AND FINALLY A MUSEUM: THE NEARLY 1,500-YEAR-OLD STORY OF THE HAGIA SOPHIA

16.05.2015 - THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: A SHELTER FOR ALL KINDS OF REFUGEES

09.05.2015 - THE MOSQUE THAT STANDS ON THE SEA: KILIÇ ALI PASHA MOSQUE

02.05.2015 - THE ROLES OF MAJOR POWERS DURING THE 1915 ARMENIAN INCIDENTS

24.04.2015 - HOW WERE THE 1915 INCIDENTS CONFRONTED BY THE OTTOMANS?

17.04.2015 - MYSTERIOUS SCHOLAR BETWEEN EAST AND WEST: LEGEND OF JAMAL AL-DIN AL-AFGHANI

10.04.2015 - A UNIQUE PERIOD IN TURKISH HISTORY: THE TULIP ERA

03.04.2015 - YEMEN: SEARCHING FOR A SIGN OF PEACE

27.03.2015 - FROM KAFFA TO ISTANBUL: COFFEE'S JOURNEY TO TURKEY

20.03.2015 - JIHAD: A MISUNDERSTOOD ISLAMIC TERM

13.03.2015 - THE BITTER STORY OF THE OTTOMAN DYNASTY’S EXILE

06.03.2015 - THE HISTORIC JOURNEY OF YOGURT: FROM TURKIC PEOPLES TO THE WORLD

27.02.2015 - THE HISTORICAL ADVENTURE OF THE TOMB OF SULEYMAN SHAH

20.02.2015 - SHOULD TURKEY SWITCH TO A PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM?

13.02.2015 - WAHHABISM: PURE ISLAM OR EXTREMISM?

06.02.2015 - WORLD WAR I: THE HEAVY TOLL OF A DEADLY CONFLİCT

27.01.2015 - LOOKING BACK ON THE LIFE OF A KING

19.01.2015 - THE OTTOMANS’ EXEMPLARY TREATMENT OF STREET ANİMALS

09.01.2015 - HURREM SULTAN: A BELOVED WIFE OR MASTER MANIPULATOR?

03.01.2015 - AN ANCESTRAL LANGUAGE WITH A DIFFERENT ALPHABET

26.12.2014 - DISCOVER THE SEALS OF OTTOMAN SULTANS

02.12.2014 - MEMORIES OF ISTANBUL SHELTERED IN FIREPROOF LIBRARIES

10.09.2014 - SEA BATHING, THE GOOD OLD FASHION WAY

07.06.2014 - SMILE AND SAY 'CHEESE'

13.05.2014 - THE OTTOMAN AQUADUCT LEGACY

25.04.2014 - WHAT HAPPENED TO THE ARMENIANS (MILLET-I SADIKA)?

20.04.2014 - OTTOMAN MILITARY MARCHING BAND

12.04.2014 - MUSLIMS COME FIRST IN THE HISTORY OF CONSTITUTIONS

05.04.2014 - ISTANBUL COMES TO BLOOM WITH TULIPS

28.03.2014 - AN EXOTIC COMMUNITY IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: THE LEVANTINES

21.03.2014 - CELEBRATE WITH SWEETS ALL YEAR ROUND

21.03.2014 - MURDERS FOR A FALSE PARADISE: THE HASHSHASHINS

10.03.2014 - NOTABLE LIFE OF MIHRIMAH SULTAN

10.03.2014 - SULTAN SULEIMAN'S INACCURATE PORTRAYAL ON TV SHOW

07.03.2014 - CRIMEA BETWEEN TWO FIRES